Types of Leather and Chrome-Free Linings

The durability and comfort of footwear depend on the type of leather used in its production, including the material and design of the upper, sole, and lining. At Conhpol, we prioritize environmentally friendly leather that is tanned without the use of chemicals or heavy metals. We use naturally tanned leather, which guarantees the aesthetic qualities, durability, and flexibility of the footwear. In addition, this method allows for the creation of unique shades appreciated by those who value good style.

Naturally tanned leather

Not everyone is aware that chromium (in the sixth degree of oxidation) – still used by many footwear manufacturers – is toxic. Research has proven the allergenic and even carcinogenic properties of Chromium VI. Therefore, even though chromium tanning is commonly known to be faster and cheaper, we use only chromium-free linings in Conhpol Gold shoes, and the linings in our classic collection meet strict European standards, where the content of chromium is minimal, harmless to the user, and does not cause allergic reactions. In the interest of our consumers’ well-being, we only use tested linings of European origin, which undergo regular quality tests.


We use naturally tanned leather – a technique that is 100% environmentally friendly, ensuring the aesthetic qualities, durability, and elasticity of the footwear. Additionally, this type of treatment allows for the creation of original, unique shades that are highly valued by enthusiasts of good style.

Vegetable tanning of leather involves transforming raw materials into a product that can be used in shoe production (or other crafts, such as leatherworking).

The process utilizes the benefits of nature: tannic acids found in the bark, leaves, branches, and fruits.


As vegetable tanning does not involve the use of any chemical or synthetic substances that could accelerate the process, the entire process takes from one to three months. The longer waiting time for the effect is the price we pay for using a fully natural method, which in turn affects the user’s comfort – the foot does not sweat, and even after a whole day of wearing the shoes, it does not tire.

Types of Leather for Shoes

At Conhpol, we use only natural materials, but leather shoes can be made from different types of leather, from classic (cattle, calf, pig, goat) to exotic (snake, crocodile, ostrich). The choice of leather for shoes depends on their intended use. Some types are perfect for elegant footwear, while others are better suited for creating more sporty models.

The types of leather used in shoes also affect the retail price of a particular pair. Below, we present the characteristics of the types of leather used in the production of footwear in our facilities.

Full-grain leather shoes

What is full-grain leather, and what does it mean? Full-grain leather is one of the types of natural leather, which is of animal origin. It is distinguished by a smooth surface, as opposed to suede or nubuck leather, which are considered rough. As a result, full-grain leather is characterized by exceptional aesthetic qualities, making it ideal for producing elegant footwear for special occasions. Full-grain leather shoes are considered to be of the highest quality, mainly due to their natural properties: durability, elasticity, resistance to moisture, and low permeability to temperature. What animal does full-grain leather come from? Cattle full-grain leather for shoes is the most popular because it is the most durable. Calf, lamb, and goat skins are also treated with full-grain leather processing.

Cowhide leather shoes

This category includes cattle leather (derived from adult animals) and calf leather (obtained from animals that have not yet reached one year of age). Both types of cowhide leather are among the most popular when it comes to footwear production.

Cattle leather shoes

As already mentioned, cattle leather is the best choice for shoes, so we regularly use this material, and our products remain popular among customers. Cattle leather shoes are not only durable and comfortable but also prevent sweating of the feet and the formation of blisters, even if worn for an extended period. Cattle leather is perfect for shoe uppers, as well as linings, or their inner layers. If you are looking to buy soft leather shoes, those made from full-grain cattle leather will be perfect. It is used to produce both elegant footwear (for aesthetics) and specialized shoes (for durability).

Soft calf leather for shoes

Valued primarily for its softness and flexibility, calf leather for shoes is a very high-quality material that is considered an exceptionally exclusive type. Compared to cow leather, soft, tanned calf leather for shoes has a finer structure, making it smoother. Calf leather shoes are mainly worn in summer because the material is very breathable, preventing sweaty feet. Colored and lacquered calf leather is often used to make footwear for special occasions, such as men’s wedding shoes. The opinions of those who wear calf leather shoes are unanimously positive, so we recommend this choice to anyone who cares about high-quality, natural leather shoes with unparalleled comfort.

Horse leather shoes

Horse leather is thick, durable, and resistant to wear. It has good elasticity and moisture resistance, making it suitable for making shoes for the autumn-winter season when they are exposed to contact with wet surfaces. Horse leathers are usually soft and smooth to the touch. They are also characterized by high durability and difficulty in damage.

Deer leather shoes

Deer leather is very durable, making it suitable as a material for specialty shoes that are frequently and intensively used, such as daily work shoes. Combined with lightness and flexibility, it is perfect for everyday use. By wearing deer leather shoes, you will certainly not complain about comfort, and you will stand out with this rather unusual choice.

Pigskin for linings

Pigskins are used to make linings due to their stretchy properties. This type of material is characterized by lightness and exceptional susceptibility to dyeing. It is also thinner than other types of leathers used to make shoes.

Shoes made of goat leather

Next to pigskin, goat leather is the second most popular choice for making the inner layer of shoes. Shoes made of goat leather are smooth and usually finished with a high gloss. The widespread use of this material in the production of elegant leather goods also attests to the exclusive character of this material.

Nubuck leather shoes

Not everyone knows what nubuck is, so let us explain. Nubuck leather shoes are one type of shoes made with suede leather. They resemble suede models, but are more durable and resistant to moisture. Nubuck leather is also extremely soft, which translates directly into comfort, and combined with its unique appearance, it is becoming increasingly popular among customers.

Leather markings on shoes

How do you know what material the shoes you plan to buy are made of? It is enough to look at the markings that the manufacturer is required to include on each pair of shoes it introduces to the market. On each label attached to the product, we will find symbols of the leather used to make the upper, lining, and sole – in written form or expressed using pictograms. The marking for natural leather takes the form of a characteristic leather shape.

Leather shoes – a Polish manufacturer

It is not insignificant that Conhpol shoes are manufactured entirely in our Polish factories. Why is it worth relying on local producers? Above all, due to the guarantee of the highest quality: carefully selected materials, production in compliance with legal regulations, and finishing with attention to detail, while adhering to strict European standards. Ambition and commitment are additional qualities that distinguish Conhpol and make it worth relying on us.

We have a well-established position on the market, and our products are also popular abroad. For each pair of shoes we produce, we attach a detailed instruction on their care – so that the user can enjoy the benefits of the purchased shoes for as long as possible.